What is an Earthquake

When underground rock breaks along a fault, the sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that cause the ground to shake. When two pieces of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they begin to stick slightly, meaning although they are pushing against each other they do not move. Through time the rocks break causing an earthquake.

Both during and afterwards the plates and rock continue to move, this occurs until they are restricted again by one another and therefore become stuck once again.

The focus is known as the spot underground where the rock breaks, the place above the focus on top of the ground is called the epicenter.

The most severe damage is found closest to the epicenter and then dispursed from there outwards, earthquakes can alter in time depending on teh amount of energy that build up before the release, as well as the size of the breaking rocks or plates underground.

BBC (2014) GCSE Bitesize- Earthquakes and Global Warming. [online] London: BBC. Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_2011/energy_home/6_stable_earth1.shtml

I love Lincoln Library

Trying to find solid evidence of an earthquake which occurred in 1185 is not the easiest task which I have ever taken on, however it is one of the more interesting. After deciding to venture into Lincoln’s library to see what it had to offer we were approached by a Librarian who asked us what we were looking for, in this question truly started our mission.

Three librarians helped in the search for information for the 1185 earthquake as well as other earthquakes and natural disasters which may have helped our search. We soon found out about the fires, and numerous earthquakes yet none to the magnitude of the one in 1185.

I was most interested when we were given numerous letters stapled together from the 6th of December 1985 (Gates S, 1985) , a woman was wanting to know more about the earthquakes which had occurred in Lincoln, within this a Dr J. A. Galletly wrote that he had found from a date book which he had that there had been earthquakes in 1038, 1142 and 1185 (Galletly J.A, 1985). Using this knowledge I needed to know about said date book and the information in which it held. The librarian then went on a search and came back with a red date book warning us to be careful and to return it straight after use as it would have to be locked away again. The date book noted:


“An earthquake which overthrew a Church and did considerable damage to the Cathedral, of which Benedict, the Abbot of Peterborough says, the like had not been heard in England: – That the rocks were rent, and the Cathedral Church of Lincoln was cleft from top to bottom ….” (The Date Book, 31)

We were also given newspaper cuttings from later years explaining the extent of earthquakes and the harm that it can do to wildlife, especially birds. Something else that did come of interest was a report that was announced which recalled any diaries, journals or personal media in any way, or any parish records etc which may shed a light on the 15 April 1185 earthquake. This allowed us to see that still even Lincoln council are issuing recalls for any information which could help them into their research of this event, of which the magnitude in England has been unheard of since.

The Date Book, R.E. Leary.

Galletly, J. A. (1985) Earthquakes in Lincoln. [letter] Sent to S Gates, 19 December. Lincoln: [Accessed 23 March 2015].


Janet Cardiff

After returning to Site with the onset of showing Conan some of the work our group had been preparing, I unfortunately had to take a back seat to listen about the change in ideas that we had been thinking about.

With the ideas of the 1185 earthquake still prominent in our piece I have been researching the basis behind an earthquake, the basic movements and vibrations which must occur for this natural disaster to occur. However I was also intrigued to research a certain artist Janet Cardiff who is known specifically for her work with sound and sound installations.

I have specifically looked at an audio walk formed by Cardiff and Miller named Jena Walk (Memory Field). The basis behind this idea was the audience would listen to an audio piece which would include sound effects from battle scenes as well as excerpts from Louise Seidler’s Diary. Cardiff wanted to use a specific landscape where the Prussians and Napolean battle had taken place 200 years before, this landscape was also a place where Russian tanks did Military exercises and one where Louise Seidler; the painter of Goethe from Jena may have walked. Cardiff took the basis of these historical events to make an audio piece about time and memory, and how one site can hold so many memories yet so many make new memories their every day.  Throughout the audio piece one century slips to another and as the listener walks they begin to become aware of each step they are taking, of where they are, of the site they are walking on just as those have for the last 200 years and the stories from those last 200 years begin to mix. The excerpts from Seidler’s diary are cleverly used as …” a narrative that deal with the physicality of memory”. Cardiff, J. Miller, B.G. (2006)

Our own piece is about an earthquake in 1185 which destroyed the Cathedral, our idea for the audio is to almost relive this with the sound of what could be the rumbles that the earthquake would have made (our own interpretation) and the crashes and movements from buildings around them, until the end at the Cathedral with a newspaper headline read out about the fall of the Cathedral. However could we use inspiration from Cardiff’s work, could we use extracts throughout the piece to vocalise what happened rather than allow our listener to decide everything? Would it be better this way to get the audience thinking about if such a tragedy happened now?

Cardiff, J. Miller, B.G. (2006) JENA WALK ( MEMORY FILED). [online] Available from: http://www.cardiffmiller.com/artworks/walks/jena.html [ Accessed 22 March 2015].

Psychological Connectedness

It’s interesting to look at the perception of each and every person and how one can change their perception, as well as how perceptions can change from one person to another. However do we truly think about how this may affect someone else? It is shown that people are more likely to care when the decisions that they make influence others, they feel connected as well as having a sense of empowerment.

In day to day life it is interesting to take a step back and look around at what others do, do they follow their friends? Or make their own decisions? Do they follow their parents? Or make up their own minds? Are they allowed to explore their own fields in which they are interested? Or are their paths laid out to them as a guide but they follow strictly afraid to take a chance?

Psychological connectedness is a form built between different people, it could be between similarity’s in their beliefs, minds, memories, experiences, likes, dislikes, anything in which is found similar to each person where they can ‘connect’ on the matter. Psychological connectedness is especially important when thinking about the times where people felt alone, where they had the belied their was no one their for them. However with this connection the small experiences shared gather a group or even just two people and allow them to share this time, this sequence or this moment together and therefore allow them to have this shared moment as a memory forever. (Li and Zhang, 2014)

Taking this into account, I would like our audio game to empower people, to make those who feel alone feel connected in some way. Therefore the connection will be in the moments where groups of people gather together or join to do the same task, such as looking up, or joining in the same area, running across the same paths etc. The idea of strangers creating a memory together and maybe forming a relationship through this short connection shows how easy it for us all to talk to each other, to interact, however we should question why we don’t!

Li, X. and Zhang, M. (2014) The Effects of Heightened Physiological Needs on Perception of Psychological Connectedness. Journal of Consumer Research, 41 (4) 1078-1079.

The Cathedral

Due to the weather last Monday we took shelter in the Cathedral as it was one of the places in which we wanted to use for our walk/game. We also knew that in the Cathedral there were numerous flags as well as the names of people who were in the Army, RAF and Navy who fell during the war. In one of our audio games we want it to be as if the players are in a war, the sounds, the moves, each game will interlink however it will be in different ways. For instance in this game the players may be told that the person next to them is an enemy trying to attack them, however the person in that game may have been told to try and make friends with that person and stick by them therefore they have to try and solve this problem.

We will try and use the Cathedral as a base for a beginning and an end as we love the echo of voices you hear inside, the design of the windows, the prayers that are made and thoughts that are given as well as what was made in the War. We hope to end the 3 game links in the church listening to the choir singing as each voice radiates against the walls is so pure and delicate, we believe we can create a small story within this about how each step and each footpath was led to this destination where all thoughts are free and everyone can be welcomed as well as forgiven for what they have done or even guided to where they may want to be. We would like to open people’s eyes to the opportunity of following different footpaths which they are told to and then given the light to create their own.